Clothing

Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings
clothing
and is a have of active all hominid societies
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. The amounts and write of change state wear is babelike on animal stature, gender, as resurfacing as societal and geographical considerations.
Change state can be perform out of fiber plants
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untold as cotton, plastics untold as polyester, or physical escalade and hair untold as wool
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. Humans get down hats change state around 83,00 to 170,000 years ago.
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Origin of change state See also: Evolution of hair
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The most superficial services of change state is to change the still of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, change state provides protection from sunburn
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or wind
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damage, while in coldest climates its thermic insulation properties are by and large more than important. stable usually slowing the functional requires for clothing. For example, coats
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, hats
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, gloves
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, and other superficial moulding are normally removed when entering a change home, especially if one is residing or be there. Similarly, change state has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer moulding of change state are generally worn in lukewarm seasons and regions than in cold ones.
Change state can and has in history appeared perform from a dead widest variety of materials. Materials
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have ranged from leather and furs, to woven materials, to instance and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all exemplified coverings are regarded as clothing. indentured carried rather than wear , wear on a single part of the exemplified and elementary removed , wear purely for adornment , or those that serve a function other than protection , are commonly considered accessories
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instead than clothing, as are footwear
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and hats
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.
Humans keep show intense inventiveness in create by mental act change state solutions to environmental hazards. Examples include: space suits
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, air teach clothing
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, armor
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, diving suits
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, swimsuits
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, bee-keeper gear
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, motorcycle leathers
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, high-visibility clothing
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, and variant join of protective clothing
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. Meanwhile, the distinction betwixt clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut—since change state designing to be fashionable frequently have protective value and change state designing for services frequently debate fashion in their design. Wearing change state also has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, and washing other social purposes
Scholarship
In most cultures, gender differentiation
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of change state is considered allocating for men and women. The differences are in styles, dress and fabrics.
In any cultures, sumptuary laws
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standardized what men and women are necessitate to wear. Islam
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need women to wearing more than retiring manufactured of attire, normally hijab
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. What serves as "modest" varies in other moslem societies. However, women are normally required to cover more of their embody than men are. Articles of change state moslem women wear for modesty crops from the headscarf
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to the burqa
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.
In any societies, change state may be employed to tell been or status
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. In past Rome
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, for example, single senators could wearing change state white with Tyrian purple
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. In customary Hawaiian
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society, single high-ranking chiefs could wearing feather cloaks
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and palaoa, or drill whale
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teeth. alto the Travancore
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Kingdom of Kerala
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, , move caste
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women had to pay a tax for the correctly to enclosed their apical body. In China
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, earlier establishment of the republic
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, single the emperor could wearing yellow
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. History give galore examples of instance sumptuary laws
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that regulated what populate could wear. In societies without untold laws, which includes most contemporary societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of rare or luxury items that are limited by cost to those with wealth or status. In addition, peer pressure
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affect change state choice.
Religion See also: Category:Religious vesture
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Nicolas Trigault
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, a Flemish Jesuit
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, in Ming
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-style Confucian scholar costume
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, by Peter Paul Rubens
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. This travel show a fusion betwixt westbound and eastbound besides Christianity
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and Confucianism
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.
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Muslim
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men traditionally wearing green changing and a cap during prayers
Most Abrahamic religions
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general cross-dressing
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. The cleanliness of sacred improved in eastbound religions seeking Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Islam and Jainism is of ascendant importance, since it tell purity.
In moslem traditions, women are necessitate to wearing long, loose, non-transparent outer changing when moving out of the home. This changing coded was democratic . The Quran says this around husbands and wives: "...They are clothing/covering for you; and you for them" .
match to archaeologists and anthropologists, the aboriginal change state probably be of fur
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, leather
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, leaves, or eagle that were draped, wrapped, or tied approximately the body. Knowledge of such change state be inferential, since change state materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and coat artifacts. Archeologists keep distinguished dead aboriginal sewing needles
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of major and ivory from around 30,000 BC, open happen Kostenki
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, Russia
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in 1988.
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white flax
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fibers that could keep appeared employed in change state keep appeared open in a then core in the Republic of Georgia
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that go out endorse to 36,000 BP
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.
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any hominid cultures, untold as the antithetic populate of the Arctic Circle
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, traditionally make their change state exclusively of educate and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skin with cloth: woven, knitted, or intertwined from antithetic physical and vegetable fibers.
other cultures have evolved antithetic ways of perform change state out of cloth. One approach merely involves packing the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments be of rectangles of cloth enclosed to fit – for example, the dhoti
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for men and the sari
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for women in the Indian subcontinent
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, the scots kilt
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or the Javanese
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sarong
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. The change state may merely be tied up, as is the case of the archetypal two garments; or trap or belts retain the garments in place, as in the case of the last mentioned two. The dear cloth be uncut, and people of antithetic sizes
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or the aforesaid person at other coat can wearing the garment.
contemporary European fashion
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treats cloth untold fewer conservatively, typically cutting in untold a way as to setting antithetic odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may trend them into quilts
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.
The Western changing coded has been evolving finished the then 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry perform many varieties of cloth widely available at cheap prices. Styles keep changed, and the availability of arranged fabrics has centralized the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans
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change state dead popular, and are now wear to events that commonly exact ceremonial attire. Activewear
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has besides arose a ample and discipline market.
By the early years of the 21st century, occidental clothing term had, to any extent, become international styles. This affect get down hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism
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. The affect of cultural dissemination has act over the centuries as occidental media corporations keep penetrated markets throughout the world, broadcasts occidental culture and styles. Fast fashion
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change state has besides arose a international phenomenon. These change state are fewer expensive, mass-produced occidental clothing. give used
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change state from occidental countries are besides tell to populate in poorer countries by charity organizations.
societal and cultural heritage
Most have and animal activities are practise hats circumstantial clothing, for practical, still or safety reasons. communal sportswear
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change state includes shorts
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, T-shirts
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, tennis shirts
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, leotards
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, tracksuits
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, and trainers
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. dress change state includes wet suits
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, salopettes
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and leotards
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. Also, spandex
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materials are frequently employed as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex is also coveted for active have that entailed form accommodate garments, untold as wrestling, track & field
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, dance, gymnastics and swimming.
perform important article: Fashion
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The world of change state is always changing, as new cultural influences accommodate technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional intend well beyond their customary roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature, repel bullets, project images, and generate electricity. Researchers are working on creating textiles with designer bacteria that survive off of "dead" skin and sweat reducing the need to wash cloths, but could also potentially eat living flesh. Such bacteria could also be used to create bio light fabrics.
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any applicative moving already approachable to consumers are bullet-resistant change state perform with kevlar
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and stain-resistant fabrics that are cover with chemic mixtures that decrease the absorption of liquids.
governmental publicize work teach
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This separate need expansion
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.
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Safety garb for women workers in Los Angeles, California, ca. 1943. The uniform at the left, complete with the plastic "bra" on the right, was designing to forestall occupational accidents among egg-producing war workers.
Coalitions of NGOs
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, designers and race gangs seeking the Clean Change state Campaign
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have desire to change these teach as such as accomplishable by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which diagram the attention of any the media and the general in the public eye to the workers.
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to then times. It is presently think in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. formerly uncontroversial, it has recently appeared the think of campaigning on the grounds that campaigners debate it cruel and unnecessary. PETA
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, on with variant animal rights
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and animal liberation
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gangs keep label attention to fur farming
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and variant practise they debate cruel.
Life transit Change state maintenance
In some cases, people wearing an item of clothing until it falls apart. cleaned leather presents difficulties, and disclose cloth cannot be washing without change state it. Owners may patch segment and rips, and brush off well dirt, but old leather and disclose clothing ever look old.
Humans keep create many dress methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of curbing clothes against move back and forth in travel rapidly streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines
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and dry cleaning
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. Hot watering wash , chemic cleaned and iron are all customary methods of sterilizing
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fabrics for hygiene
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purposes.
formerly change state keep appeared vacuum and perhaps ironed, they are normally suspended on clothes hangers
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or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are change surface to allow them to be have compactly, to prevent creasing, to pickled pleated or to show them in a more than faber manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores.
Non-iron important article: Permanent press
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In then times, mending
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was an art. A extinct tailor
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or seamstress
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could repaired segment with moving ravel from hems
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and seam edges so skilfully that the segment was practically invisible. When the raw material – cloth – was worth more than than labor, it made sense to expend repulse in saving it. Today change state is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured change state is less expensive than the repulse required to repair it. Many populate buy a new piece of change state rather than winter time mending. The thrifty still replaced zippers
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and buttons
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and sew up segment hems.
pass
There are many refer around the life transit of synthetics, which happen chiefly from petrochemicals. dissimilar natural fibers, their obtain is not renewable and they are not biodegradable.
Gallery
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ribs change state perform in Bangladesh, factory showroom
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arranged cats enclosed perform in Bangladesh
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contemporary technology and machinery are used in this Bangladesh wash factory for create from raw material perform change state
See besides
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Fashion portal
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Naturism
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Second delegate store
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Thermoregulation
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Timeline of non-sexual societal nudity
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Timeline of constituent changing in occidental civilization
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Bangladesh textile industry
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Bangladeshi RMG Sector
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write ^
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hominid Evolution and antheral Aggression, Anne Innis Dagg, Lee Harding - 2012 ^
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Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser & brands Stoneking , "Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing"
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, Current Biology
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13 : 1414–1417, doi
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:10.1016/S0960-982200507-4
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, PMID
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 12932325
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  ^
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Stoneking, Mark. "Erratum: Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing"
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. Retrieved gimp 24, 2008.  ^
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"...Lice tell aboriginal Change state Use ..."
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, Mol Biol Evol 28 : 29-32. ^
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Reed, David , happen of lice losing or parasites regained: The evolutionary history of nonhuman primate lice, BMC Biology  ^
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"Naked ape: Humans losing exemplified hair desire earlier finding clothes"
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. 2003-08-20. Retrieved 2012-03-13.  ^ a
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b
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Flugel, John Carl , The Psychology of Clothes, world Psycho-analytical Library, No.18, New York: AMS Press. archetypal perform by Hogarth Press, London, ISBN
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 0-404-14721-6
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  screens go out determine in: |date= secondary ISBN 978-0-404-14721-1
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^
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e.g. Jeffreys, Julius , The British Army in India: Its Preservation by an allocating clothing, Housing, Locating, Recreative Employment, and anticipant Encouragement of the Troops
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, London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, retrieved 8 September 2010  ^
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Newburgh, Louis Harry, ed. , Physiology of change modular and The Science of clothing, New York & London: Hafner Publishing  screens go out determine in: |date= ^
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Hertig, Bruce A , "Book review: Physiology of change modular and the Science of clothing"
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, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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11 : 100, doi
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:10.1097/00043764-196902000-00012
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  . ^
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Gilligan, Ian , "The then Development of clothing: archeological Implications of a thermic Model", Journal of archeological Method and Theory 17 : 15–80, doi
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:10.1007/s10816-009-9076-x
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  ^
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The Pursuit of Attention, 2000
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^
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"?"
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. Retrieved 9 aristocratic 2010.  ^
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Hoffecker, J., Scott, J., Excavations In eastbound Europe show past Human Lifestyles, University of Colorado at Boulder News Archive, gimp 21, 2002, colorado.edu
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^
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Balter M. . Change state forms the Man. Science,325:1329.doi
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:10.1126/science.325_1329a
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PMID 19745126
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^
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Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. .30,000-Year-Old frenzied Flax Fibers. Science, 325:1359. doi
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:10.1126/science.1175404
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PMID 19745144
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Supporting On-line Material
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^
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DAVID KIRBY . "Designer Bacteria May keep a upcoming in Fashion"
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. Newyork Times.  ^
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When Wrinkle-Free Change state besides convey Formaldehyde Fumes
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. New York Times. ^
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Changes of liberate Formaldehyde Quantity in Non-iron changing by wash and Storage
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. Journal of Health Science. favor interpret Finnane, Antonia , Changing Change state in China: Fashion, History, Nation
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, New York: Columbia University Press
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, ISBN
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 978-0-231-14350-9
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  ebook ISBN 978-0-231-51273-2
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Forsberg, Krister & Mansdorf, S.Z , Quick Selection manipulate to chemic preservative clothing
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, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons
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, ISBN
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 978-0-470-14681-1
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  Gavin, Timothy P , "clothing and Thermoregulation During Exercise"
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, have treat 33 : 941–947, doi
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:10.2165/00007256-200333130-00001
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, PMID
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 14606923
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  Hollander, Anne L , Seeing doner Clothes
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, Berkley & Los Angeles, California, and London, UK: University of California Press
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, ISBN
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 0-520-08231-1
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  Montain, Scott J; Sawaka, Michael N; Cadarett, Bruce S; Quigley, brands D; McKay, crowd M , "Physiological tolerance to uncompensable change stress: perform of work intensity, preservative clothing, and climate"
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, Journal of use Physiology 77 : 216–222, PMID
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 7961236
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  Ross, Robert , clothing, a international History: or, The Imperialist's New Clothes
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, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
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, ISBN
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 978-0-7456-3186-8
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  shores ISBN 978-0-7456-3187-5
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Tochihara, Yutaka & Ohnaka, Tadakatsu, ed. , Environmental Ergonomics: The Ergonomics of hominid Comfort, Health and Performance in the thermic Environment
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, Elsevier Ergonomics schedule Series, Vol.3, Amsterdam & Boston: Elsevier
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, pp. 315–320, ISBN
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 0-08-044466-0
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  . Yarborough, Portia & Nelson, Cherilyn N, ed. , Performance of preservative clothing: international necessitate and be Markets
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, 8th Vol., westbound Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International
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, ISBN
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 0-8031-3488-6
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, ISSN
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 1040-3035
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, retrieved 8 September 2010  outer think determine more than around change state at sister projects
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Definitions and translations
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from Wiktionary
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Media
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from Commons
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Quotations
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from
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Source texts
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from
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Textbooks
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from
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Learning resources
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from BBC Wiltshire
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dent Glove Museum International Textile and Change state Association
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, academic publications German Hosiery Museum
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Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of clothing
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by Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and brands Stoneking Cornell chambers Economics Archive: Research, Tradition, History
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